# Sprout Fall 16 Course Catalog

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Core Class Elective

Core Class

C2107: Diatonic Harmony
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Milo Brandt

We will discuss the concepts underpinning diatonic music, including the construction of basic chord progressions and voice leading.

Prerequisites
Students should be able to read sheet music.

C2108: Tilings
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Milo Brandt

Tilings appear often in art and naturally in many contexts where repeating designs are desired. We will investigate the mathematical basis for tilings, touching upon both old and new results in mathematics, learning fancy terms that will make your friends think you're really smart, Plus, we will get to look at neat pictures of the objects of study.

C2109: Beginning Spanish
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Katherine Kidney

Ever wanted to learn to speak a new, fun language that can take you to tropical beaches, famous churches and mosques, high mountains, and the origins of civilization in the Americas?

Come begin to learn Spanish!

C2113: To Infinity and Beyond!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Daniel Hwang

How do you add people to a fully occupied infinite hotel? When we are little, we have a pretty basic understanding of infinity, how we can count and count and never end. But when we do more complicated work with infinity, it suddenly isn't so intuitive. How do we deal with that concept when it is applied to different theoretical scenarios? What can we learn from using infinitude in fractals?

Prerequisites
Basic algebra (understand addition, multiplication, exponents)

C2114: Being A Princess: A Look Into Disney
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Daniel Hwang

Being a princess is tough work. Sometimes. In this class, we will critically analyze how Disney princesses are portrayed, their interactions with other characters, their strengths, and their faults, as well as look at the princesses in the context of the Disney empire and time period. Come prepared to rethink how you feel about some of the most iconic animated films.

Prerequisites
Willingness to look past nostalgia Familiarity with at least one Disney princess

C2125: Nutrition, Public Health, and Cancer Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Ryan Malpass

Have you every wondered about the science behind food? If so, this class will provide you with a scientific basis for understanding the role of nutrition in the cause, prevention, and management of chronic diseases. A wide range of topics are covered, such as micronutrients, macronutrients, foods, food groups, dietary patterns, and energy balance. This course also teaches students how nutrition/diet is measured for research and public health surveillance, as well as the primary analysis methods used in the public health study of nutrition. Chronic diseases that may be addressed include cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and aging, though special emphasis is given to nutrition in relation to cancer. In addition to learning about public health and basic science research on nutrition and chronic disease, students will delve into how this evidence plays a role in nutrition-related legislation, food marketing, and federal nutrition policy (e.g. dietary guidelines, dietary supplement regulations, food labeling).

Prerequisites
None!

C2132: The Neuroscience of Morality Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Daniel Do

What makes an action right or wrong? Is morality just a matter of opinion or is it rooted in something deeper? What are the neurological, evolutionary, and cultural origins of moral emotions like compassion and hatred? What is the relationship between free will and moral responsibility, consciousness and moral obligation? What are the ethical implications of advanced neuroimaging technologies, memory implantations, virtual reality machines, and brain simulations?

In this course, we will discuss and debate these deeply fascinating questions.

C2144: An Introduction to Skepticism
Difficulty: **
Teachers: John Ventura

What actually is science? How is logical different from illogical? Admittedly, one of the most important outcomes of education is learning how to think. Today we live with persistent distraction and seemingly endless amounts of information. We are all guilty of flawed thinking and logical fallacies and we associate with people who are simply unaware of, or even worse, trying to gain from, misinformation. Therefore, we must learn how to distinguish between clear thinking and irrational thinking, good science from pseudoscience. This class is a simple introduction to the topic of skepticism and logic, and how we perceive truth in science and our daily lives.

Prerequisites
The will to challenge, argue, and a sense of fun!

C2145: Intro to Quantum Mechanics Full!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Spencer Rogers

We will begin by discussing experiments that led to the development of quantum theory, then move on to working with the theory in its mathematical form using the simple and illuminating case of 2-dimensional vector spaces, which will allow us to understand the Stern-Gerlach experiment in particular. If time permits, we can talk about philosophical issues such as the many interpretations of QM, and sketch out advanced topics like identical particles, entanglement, etc.

Prerequisites
comfort with algebra

C2147: Sculpting Sound
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Xinyuan Chen

Hearing is definitely one of my top 5 senses.

In this course, we'll learn about sound- what it is, how it do, and how to modify it for our own purposes. Here's a 70% complete topics list:

What's sound?
How does sound travel?
How does sound interact?
How do we hear?
What happens if we tweak various aspects of sound?
How do we build an environment for an audience through sound?
Whatever questions YOU have!

Prerequisites
An interest in sound

C2149: The Subjunctive in English and Other Grammar Oddities Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Brett Greene

English grammar is a byzantine subject, and there is very little agreement on what constitutes 'proper' English. In this class, we'll explore how English ended up the way it did, with a particular focus on the use of the subjunctive mood.

C2150: How to Invent the Future. With Technology
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Mark Pham

This class is a simple lecture with a Q&A. The lecture covers the history of seminal Silicon Valley companies and how the ideas that created these companies were formulated. Students should be able to think more critically about the nature of technology startups.

Prerequisites
No experience with digital technology required, but some knowledge about the tech industry is preferred.

C2155: The Moral of the Story
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Sarah Joo

In “The Moral of the Story,” students will study the basics of moral philosophy through the lens of children’s literature. Using popular stories as a starting point, this class will discuss one of society’s most challenging questions: What is the right thing to do? We’ll examine possible answers and how to convey them simply, looking at how and why we incorporate them into books for children.

C2159: Politics in the Olympic Arena
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Michael Borger

Examining how the political sphere, both internationally and within individual states, has shaped country participation and hosting, Olympic events, athletes and their actions, and more. In this course, you will learn about the international system and relevant theories through the lens of one of the world's biggest sporting events, and you will also analyze the enduring effects the Olympics have had on interstate diplomacy and discord. This course is designed to be informative, engaging, and entertaining for all students.

C2194: Understanding the 2016 Election Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Joseph Tomchak

An examination of major policy issues in the 2016 election from the presidential race to the senate. Beyond email scandals and outrageous remarks, do you really know where the candidates stand on major issues? This class will discuss those issues and include interactive activities.

C2196: Game Design
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Tyler Petrochko

An introduction to 3D game design using the Unity game engine. We will design and script a basic game using C#, and very briefly cover additional tools for modeling and animating 3D characters.

C2198: Understanding the Syrian Humanitarian Crisis
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Yasamin Sharifi

This course aims to help high school students make sense of the Syrian refugee crisis and the war in Syria--the worst humanitarian crisis of our time. We will help students more fully appreciate the complexity of the situation and think critically about media portrayals of the war. Students will learn why the situation in Syria is so critical, and why it is highly relevant to the rest of the world. Particular attention will be paid to the role of Western countries, and to contextualizing the negative responses refugees often receive with similar historical events, such as McCarthyism. Current event topics such as the rise of Islamophobia, Brexit, and terrorism may be included.
There will be a special emphasis on what high school students can do to raise awareness of the Syrian Humanitarian Crisis and effect small-scale change.

C2201: The History of Mathematics
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Jeffrey Lai

A broad overview of the progression of mathematics over history. We will briefly go over some mathematical concepts, in tandem with interesting anecdotes about mathematicians (mathematicians are weird people).

Prerequisites
None

C2203: Post-Racial World: Defining Race, Racism and Inclusion in the 21st Century, A Post-Racial Society
Difficulty: **

It seems as if racism and issues dealing with race has become a hot button issue in the last three years, why? What is a race and why is it so important for a certain group of people and irrelevant for another? Is it tied to demonstrations on campuses country-wide? This class will explore both race, racism, 'reverse-racism', the Black Lives Matter movement and multiculturalism as it deals with identity.

Prerequisites
Three short required readings: http://thetab.com/us/yale/2016/09/15/in-ghana-for-the-first-time-i-wasnt-a-black-person-i-was-just-a-person-3068 http://thetab.com/us/yale/2015/11/13/a-freshmans-reflection-on-the-events-at-yale-and-mizzou-1499 https://www.academia.edu/28585406/Black_is_Not_Beautiful

C2119: Classical Compositions in American Artwork
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Thomas Gould

Background in introductory classical art composition and examination of American painters Winslow Homer, N.C Wyeth, and Norman Rockwell

Prerequisites
none

C2188: Economics and the American Healthcare System
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Pranam Dey

Health spending has reached almost 20% of American GDP. In other words, almost 1 in 5 of dollars spent in the US goes toward health care in some way. Health care is a deeply emotional issue to many and features prominently in national political discourse. This course will apply basic economic principles to gain a deeper understanding of the American healthcare system and health policy.

C2116: Writing Identities
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Sohum Pal

Who is allowed to write? What gender and ethnic identities? What sexualities? What ability statuses? The authors read in traditional English classes tend not to represent the students reading them. This course seeks to open students' views on the kinds of writing and the kinds of writers that can and should be read.
Course will involve reading works of primarily minority writers both well-known and somewhat more obscure. Writings will draw heavily from contemporary experience. (James Baldwin, Alice Walker, Amy Tan, Siddhartha Mukherjee, etc.)
In addition to reading, students will write their own personal essays in a workshop format. This may help with students preparing to write a college application essay, or who are interested in writing as a profession.

Elective

E2096: Gay Pride, Gender Outlaws, and Radical Love
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Gray Golding

Come learn about the LGBTQ+ world history and culture that your AP World teacher will never tell you was queer–from ancient Rome to China's Han Dynasty to the the Wild West and more.

E2098: The Psychology of Power: Human Nature and the Subconscious
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Kevin Hwang

At the center of this course’s premise is the critical recognition of how human nature shapes the ways we obtain power and wield it. The seminar will first examine some key experiments in psychology such as the Milgram Experiment (exploring mechanisms of authority and obedience), Stanford Prison Experiment (exploring power and its abuse), and the Little Albert Experiment (exploring subconscious patterning and conditioning), describe the fundamental patterns of human psychology that they reveal, and then discuss how these patterns are exploited or subconsciously utilized in various historical cases of power consolidation. Case studies include Nazi Germany, media wars in contemporary United States politics, and nationalist movements. Students will leave understanding the basic patterns of human nature, and understanding how these patterns directly cross over into political behavior. They will also feel comfortable describing how to analyze a psychological power case study such as that of Nazi Germany or Soviet Russia with the guidelines and considerations laid out in class discussion.

E2099: Language and Madness
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Katherine Adams

'Madnesses' of all ilks, considered humanistically, from the perspective of their effects on language: Of what, to whom, by what means does the 'madman' speak? Through what -- if any -- identifiable forms does his language realize itself? This class will explore how psychological crisis becomes embedded in language, decentering the speaking subject and perturbing her expression. Our approach will be interpretative and will eschew diagnostic or strictly psychiatric perspectives. The class should appeal particularly to those of more literary and philosophical bents as well as students interested in psychology. As we will see, by tracing the breakdown of language one may arrive at new concepts through which to consider and transform one's own ways of writing, speaking, and thinking.

Our material will include: linguist Roman Jakobson's work on aphasia, philosopher/linguist Luce Irigaray's work with schizophrenics and neurotics, psychologist R.D. Laing's theories of psychosis, philosopher/psychologist Karl Jaspers' writing on schizophrenia. We'll also work with theorists from the psychoanalytic tradition, including: Jacques Lacan -- whose work was shaped by the linguistic theories of Ferdinand de Saussure, W.R. Bion, and Julia Kristeva. Brief examination of literary 'case studies' -- for example, 'mad' monologues from Shakespeare, and an excerpt from Daniel Paul Schreber's 'Memoirs of my Nervous Illness' (which deeply influenced Freud's writing on psychosis).

Prerequisites
Interest in and some basic exposure to literary theory, psychology, philosophy or related fields.

E2100: Alternative Nucleic Acid Structures
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Peter Wang

Heard about DNAs and RNAs? These are some of the most important molecules in biology. This class will delve deeper into the structure of DNAs, RNAs and other nucleic acids, and give a quick view of some of the alternative forms in structure that are important in biology and research, ranging from modified nucleotides and alternative helix structures.
No matter if you just want to learn about some fascinating and rarely known things about DNAs, or want to extend your current knowledge about DNAs, this class is meant for you! Come explore something cool with us.

Prerequisites
Good basic knowledge of DNAs (and RNAs) required, e.g. the four canonical bases, nucleotides, double helices.

E2101: Brain Takeover: Parasite Manipulation Theory
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Helen Beilinson

Microorganisms, like parasites, viruses, and bacteria, need to spread from host to host during their lifetimes. Many microorganisms have evolved unique ways to most effectively do this. One creative way is to literally change the behaviors of their hosts. From a parasite that makes mice lose their fear of cats because it likes living in cats' bellies to another parasite that makes ants disguise themselves as fruit so they can be eaten by birds, which the parasite prefers to live inside. We will go through many examples of behavior manipulation by parasites and talk about the evolution of this strange phenomenon.

E2105: Make a Motor
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Milo Brandt

We will learn how electric motors work, as well as create our own simple models of a motor.

E2106: Nimbers (Not Numbers)
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Milo Brandt

Nimbers are a powerful tool which can reduce some simple games of strategy to mere calculating with a funny system of "numbers" called nimbers. We will talk about the winning strategy for the game of picking stones (Nim) and other simple games.

E2110: Religious Freedom in America
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Katherine Kidney

We all know that everyone has religious freedom in the United States, but what does that really mean? How long have we have had TRUE religious freedom? Are we becoming less free? Can Donald Trump actually restrict immigration of Muslims?

This class will focus on how religious freedom has changed through the years because of Supreme Court cases.

There will be room for student debate about what current policy should be!

Prerequisites
Respectful and open-minded attitude

E2111: No Body is Perfect: Eating Disorders 101
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Jessica Schmerler

There are common misconceptions about eating disorders and what causes them. This course will delve into the three major categories of eating disorders, plus some lesser-known forms, and explain what they are, how to recognize the symptoms, and how they are treated.

E2112: Explore Hawai'i
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Stephanie Spear

Every culture has its own style of dance. Come join this class to learn a little bit about the hula, the dance of the Hawaiian people, and the Hawaiian culture! Aloha!

Prerequisites
Positive attitude and open mindedness!

E2115: Wired to Fire: Examining the Brain in Health and Disease
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Paige Miranda

A healthy brain is comprised of millions of microscopic neurons working together to create our memories, emotions, and thoughts. Have you ever wondered what happens when this process is disrupted? In this course we will explore the healthy brain processing as well as what happens in various neurological diseases. Get ready to learn more about diseases like Alzheimer's, schizophrenia, and CTE through solving clinical case studies and perusing scientific journals.

Prerequisites
Background in biology is strongly suggested!

E2117: Exploring Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence
Difficulty: *

This course will be half lecture, half discussion. We will cover the problem of artificial intelligence (both technologically and ethically), types of intelligent machines, current approaches to AI, and where the field is heading going into the 21st century. We will also be discussing a little bit of neuroscience, more specifically the physical structure of the brain and how neural networks are formed.

E2118: From Aristotle to Dark Energy: A Crash Course in Astronomy
Difficulty: **

This course will be a basic, non-mathematical overview of our universe! We'll start in ancient Greece with Aristotle and work our way up through Galileo, Kepler, and Hubble until we reach current times, along the way discussing the origin of our planet and the solar system, the sun and other stars, galaxies, and finally the structure of our universe.

E2120: X-ray Crystallography: Using lasers to see inside crystals Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Kirsten Knecht

Diamonds, snowflakes, and even proteins… Crystals are beautiful! Did you know that you can use lasers to look inside crystals? This is called X-ray Crystallography, and it is used to study a variety of problems related to biochemistry, medicine, and pharmacology. In this interactive workshop, we’ll play with lasers to learn about basic principles. Then, we’ll discover how these simple concepts have been used solve biomedical mysteries.

E2121: Positivity: The Power of Optimism
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Caitlin Dermody

Harness the power of optimism into positivity to improve your Outlook on life!

E2122: Feminist Punk Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Gray Golding

Let's listen to some iconic feminist punk songs and talk about what makes them (or doesn't make them!) feminist and punk!

E2123: Introduction to Game Theory: How to Make Smart Decisions
Difficulty: **

An introduction to mathematical game theory, studying how to use logic and probability to make intelligent, rational decisions in games. Will include discussions of payoff matrices, the Prisoner's Dilemma, the role of randomness in optimal strategies, and other related topics.

Prerequisites
Knowledge of basic algebra would be useful.

E2124: World War II and its aftermath in Eastern Europe
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Katherine Kidney

While the invasion of Normandy has been glorified in film and history class, did you know that the true turning point was in Russia?

For a time in Europe, communists were allies of the US.

Learn about an oft-neglected region of the world that was central to Russian power during the Soviet Era to better understand the Cold War.

Prerequisites
Must have taken at least one history class in school that talked about WWII.

E2126: Performance Psychology: How to do well under pressure Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Daniel Henick

This class explores the reasons why we get nervous when in high pressure situations and looks at some techniques that can help reduce anxiety and perform at the highest level.

E2127: Introductory Screenwriting Workshop
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Jackie Ferro

This course will explain how to write a screenplay, and explore why we write screenplays the way that we do. Emphasis is placed on the players and processes required to make a film, as well as on screenwriting form and style.

E2128: Mindfulness and Stress Tolerance
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Jayne Green

Learn to identify and better manage stress through mindfulness, a simple way of thinking that anyone can do.

E2129: It Ain't Over 'till the Fat Lady Sings: Opera, and Why It's Cool
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Saloni Rao

A quick introduction to Opera, and why it's not as boring as you think! We'll listen to some operatic pieces that you will surely recognize, discuss some of the juiciest Operatic plot lines, and even learn a couple of familiar Opera choruses. We'll go through a brief version of the history of Opera and talk about some of the most famous Opera singers of the past and present, too!

E2130: Rhetoric: How to Use Fancy Words & Get What You Want Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Saloni Rao

What is "rhetoric"? Essentially, it is the art of persuasion. We'll learn just how to coax, convince, and coerce people into getting exactly what you want! We'll demystify some fancy Greek words and discover how to best use techniques of ancient philosophers to make a compelling argument. We'll go over how to successfully make a point, and by the end of the class, you'll have a fool-proof method to successfully out-argue your family, friends, and foes!

E2131: The Buckley Program: Federalist 10
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Madeline Fortier

This course will emphasize the political philosophy and theory behind the American Founding. It will broadly cover the American Founding and the Federalist Papers, with a specific focus on Federalist 10. Within Federalist 10, we will examine Madison's portrayal of factionalism, majoritarian rule as a form of tyranny, the nature of Madisonian republicanism (as opposed to democracy), and the role of government.

Prerequisites
Read and annotate Federalist 10 (http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa10.htm) Interests in and general knowledge of US history and government

E2133: The Limits of Knowledge Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Daniel Do

How do you know you're not living in a Matrix simulation? Are most of your memories false? How much of your environment do you perceive? Is there a limit to how much you can learn or comprehend? Is there anything you could ever be certain about?

In this class, we'll explore puzzles, paradoxes, and psychological phenomena that cast doubt on everything you think you know.

E2134: Vaccines, Viruses, Virulence, and You!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Mac Crite

What are vaccines and how do they work? Why do we need them? Do they REALLY cause autism? Come learn the nitty gritty details of vaccines and how they apply to you!

Prerequisites
Basic biology understanding is preferred.

E2135: Introduction to Genetics
Difficulty: **

This course will teach about genetics including the basics of heredity (in terms of things like Punnett Squares), what genes are, how genetic information is encoded (DNA), what transcription and translation are within the Central Dogma, how gene expression functions within the body and what can occur with genetic diseases. It will also overview some applications of genetics into things like genome editing (i.e. PNA/DNA methods or CRISPR methods) to treat a genetic disease, SNP chips, and the human genome project.

Prerequisites
Basic understanding of biology

E2136: Building Your Story: A Creative Writing Workshop Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Meghana Mysore

Learn how to write creatively, experiment with poetry and short essay, and find the intersection between writing and art. Read compelling works of writing and build your narrative voice. Participate in fun, collaborative activities with your peers meant to spark your inspiration.

E2137: From Chopin to Sheeran: How to Write Music
Difficulty: **
Teachers: John Baxter

Do you play an instrument of any sort? Do you sing? Do you just want to learn more about music? Well come learn about the fundamentals of music such as melody, harmony, and rhythm so that you can begin creating your own music! We'll be discussing chord progressions, improv, recording basics, and the music industry, as well as many other fascinating aspects of music. "If composers could say what they had to say in words, they would not bother trying to say it in music." -Mahler

E2138: Why You Should Care About The Presidential Election
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Benjamin Zollinger

This class will explain why you as high schoolers should care about who wins the presidential election and how it will affect the youth of America. Even if you can't vote, you still have a say in who wins and your life will most definitely be impacted on the outcome.

E2139: HTML/CSS/Javascript 101: A basic introduction to front-end web development
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Abhi Nayar

Come learn the basic of front-end or client side web development. By the end of the course you should have an introductory understanding of HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) and a tad bit of JS (Javascript). We will host our site on Github sites. We'll power through as much of the basic dev process as we can, making our own bootstrap powered simple skeleton website. At the end you will receive a link to a webpage where, for those interested, you can find more information and really flush out your site.

Prerequisites
None. If you have a laptop bring it.

E2140: English and Latin: A 'Romantic' Affair
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Sean Gleason

Despite being different languages, English and Latin share a striking number of linguistic similarities. In this class, we will discuss why this is so, focusing first on the two languages' common origin (Proto-Indo-European), and then on their centuries-long contact via French. We will discover the fascinating connection between linguistic and social history, and learn how defeat on an English battlefield forever changed how we speak today.

Prerequisites
Some previous study of Latin or a Romance language will be helpful, but is not necessary for taking the course.

E2141: Yoga
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Catherine Chang

Relax and unwind with a yoga class! Open to students of all levels of experience. Bring your own mat or towel.

E2142: Turkey - Syria - ISIS Crisis
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Ramiz Colak

Interested in learning more about one of the biggest challenges of 21st century? Join this class to see a brief presentation explaining major events and key concepts of Turkey - Syria - ISIS crisis. A discussion will follow the presentation and all students are welcome to share their opinions, ask their questions or/and offer a short discussion topic for the class.

Prerequisites
No prerequisite for the class, but it would be great if you are interested in politics, or are curious about what has been going in Turkey-Syria border since 2013.

E2146: The Rwandan Genocide and the World's Silence
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Sheila Qasemi

The Rwandan Genocide began on April 7, 1994, and after 100 days close to a million people were murdered. In this course, we will explore the meaning of "genocide" and reflect on major examples of genocide in history. We will analyze the underlying causes of the Rwandan genocide, specifically focusing on the Hutu and Tutsi conflict. We will discover how many countries of the Western world, including the United States, remained largely silent. Finally, we will discuss how Rwandans are healing and forgiving one another twenty-two years later.

E2148: An introduction to organic chemistry!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Nancy Lu

Calling all chemistry nerds, premeds, and others looking to get a taste in college-level topics! Organic chemistry is often considered one of the most difficult courses, but this class should provide you with some basics of the topic.

In the class, we will cover naming of various molecules, several basic reactions, and how to represent molecules in 3D. We will also talk about why these topics are so important and relevant to our daily experiences.

Prerequisites
Some basic knowledge of chemistry should be sufficient.

E2152: The Age-Old Battle: Reason vs. Passion
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Yookyung Kwak

From cartoonists to philosophers to playwrights to novelists, people have written extensively on the relationship between reason and passion. This class will focus two specific philosophers, Plato and Hume, who took differing sides in this age-old argument.

E2153: The United States of Girls: the Coolest Women of American History
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Jaclyn Price

A quick introduction to the leading ladies of our country's history, the impact they have on us today, and why you may have never heard of them.

Prerequisites
N/A or some working knowledge of American history.

E2154: Positive Psychology and the Power of the Growth Mindset
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Colin Hill

An accessible but research-based exploration of the science of happiness. Will focus on questions such as: what can we do to empower ourselves to lead more fulfilling lives? How can we change our mindset to be more successful academically, socially, even athletically?

E2156: Integer Partitions
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Milo Brandt

We will talk about the mathematics of writing a number as a sum of other numbers, tying together some curious techniques of proof and combinatorics.

E2157: Mathematical Art
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Milo Brandt

We will look at mathematical art, looking at the mathematical principles underpinning works by artists like Escher and the artistic manifestations of mathematical concepts.

E2158: Reality is a Malleable Thing: An Exploration of Social Constructionist Theory
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Luisa Graden

Why are red and orange different colors, but not light and dark blue? Why do we segregate based on race instead of by shoe-size? Why do some cultures value burkas while others promote bikinis? The answer to these questions are not inherent, universal principles, but rather constructions of a seemingly-shared reality. We have created the meaning that makes everything we do possible. This class will explore the theory of social construction and how it is applicable to how we live.

E2161: Introduction to Psychology Full!
Difficulty: *

What does it mean to be emotionally intelligent? Does money buy happiness? Can monkeys learn basic language and the rules of counting? Why do people fall in love? This course aims to address these questions and many others through the topic of psychology: the science of behavior and the mind.

E2163: Nordic History
Difficulty: **

The cold, harsh climate of Scandinavia could never support large populations or powerful empires. Yet the hardy Nordic people, though few in number, have had a tremendous impact on the course of Western civilization. We’ll cover Norse mythology (including the gods Thor and Loki of Marvel fame), Viking warfare and exploration, famous Icelandic sagas, the emergence of modern Nordic social democracies, and lots more!

Prerequisites
None

E2165: You, Human: The Evolution and Relevance of Human Rights
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Trinh Truong

Since the end of WWII, human rights has evolved from a broad concept to an increasingly influential moral tool in confronting human suffering and injustice. However, numerous debates are still being had over what human rights are, what they include, and whether or not they can be upheld and enforced. The course will trace the different manifestations of human rights from the ancient world through today's society, examine the legal institutions and documents that have been developed to affirm and protect human rights, and consider international contemporary human rights issues of race in the United States and refugees around the globe.

E2166: Viking Sagas: Fire and Ice
Difficulty: **

It’s the Settlement Age in Iceland, and almost everything is up for grabs! Follow Snorri the goði to the Snaefellsness Peninsula, Erik the Red across the sea, and Hen-Thorir to West Iceland as the Vikings battle for honor, power, and survival!

E2167: A Crash Course on Color
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Yongjie Lin

Roses are red, violets are blue - or so they claim. But what makes a rose red? What is red? And then what's scarlet, carmine, crimson, ruby, brick, maroon? How do we tell, and are we always right? Why would you (theoretically) appear redder when running away from someone? Does pink actually exist?

Want a whirlwind of physics, chemistry, astronomy, biology, and neuroscience?

Come for the colors and stay for the answers!

E2169: Adaptation: plants, Animals, Human and Environment.
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Barkley Dai

Have you ever wonder, why do plants and animals look different? How do they coexist on this planet? How does each single specie adapt to their local environment? How do we human as a specie reshaped the environments on earth?
This course will explore the interactions between plants and animals, and introduce the basic concept of environmental protection.

E2170: Public Transit in the Americas
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Andrew Sandweiss

Transportation is what moves the world, and in a world that grows more and more urban by the minute, public transit is key to developing the 21st century efficiently. In "Public Transit in the Americas," you'll learn about transportation in cities from Seattle to Santiago. You'll learn how transit systems are designed, who designs them, and what effects they have on the cities they're in. You'll even design a transit system yourself. You'll learn about how the world moved, moves, and will move!

E2172: New Haven: An Urban History Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Andrew Sandweiss

New Haven: a city that has gone through rapid growth, perilous decline, and cautious resurgence. In "New Haven: An Urban History", you'll learn about the planning of New Haven, its development into a major industrial center, the growth of poverty in its inner city, and the issues it faces today.

E2173: Urban Inequality in Games
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Robert Scaramuccia

Rapture, Los Santos, Diamond City, The Citadel—all metropolises of unimaginable decadence and pervasive poverty. Why have so many of the past decade's greatest games used beautifully-realized cities to explore themes of economic inequality and racial hierarchy? What can virtual cities teach us about the socio-economic landscapes of Los Angeles, Detroit, or New Haven? Using Bioshock Infinite's Columbia as a guiding example, we'll take a look at how video games interpret what it's like to live in a diverse, interconnected space and ask whether games can accurately reflect the world we live in (spoilers: they totally can!).

E2174: Almost Human: Bigfoot and Other Mystery Apes
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Ethan France

Giant primates have featured in myth and legend for thousands of years. Some, like the gorilla, have since been discovered by scientists. Others, like the famed bigfoot and yeti, remain mysterious. Using paleontology, anthropology and evolutionary science, we will answer several key questions. Could these creatures be real? How can science help us separate truth from fantasy? And why do we find giant apes so fascinating in the first place?

Prerequisites
None, but students who have taken biology may find the science easier to follow.

E2175: The Science of Optical Illusions
Difficulty: **

Have you ever seen something and not believed your eyes? Do you want to understand why visually perceived images differ from objective reality? Then this is the class for you!

We will present and analyze different optical illusions and explain why we perceive things the way we do. Get ready to experience some unbelievable demonstrations and videos. Don't be deceived. Come to the science of optical illusions!

E2176: A Brief History of China
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Laurence Li

All 6000 years of Chinese history, in one class! A focus on big ideas like Confucianism, Unity vs. Disunity, and Barbarian invasions.

E2177: US Presidential Assassinations: Garfield and Guiteau
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Robert Scaramuccia

It's July 2nd, 1881. Having settled into the presidency after winning the election of 1880 by just 2,000 votes, President James Garfield strolls into the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad, ready for a leisurely train ride to New Jersey. In a time before the Secret Service protected presidents, Garfield is accompanied only by his friend, Secretary of State James G. Blaine. Out of nowhere, a shot rings out. President Garfield crumples to the floor, severely wounded. Standing over him is Charles Guiteau, a disgruntled job-seeker proclaiming his divine right to end the president's life. Over the next few months, as the nation's 20th President lay in his deathbed, the United States grappled with issues as diverse and complex as national security, the insanity defense, and modern medical practice. By the time Garfield finally died in a New Jersey beach house three months after being shot, the United States faced a new political era. We will explore the context and consequences of this little-known narrative of national loss, discovering how hurt pride, egotism, and recklessness can change the course of history.

E2178: Top Secret: Unethical Human Experiments of the 20th Century Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Sarah Abdallah

From illegal drug testing, to secret chemical weapons development, to psychological torture, scientific research has long been marred by unethical practices. This course will cover the details of several infamous experiments on human subjects, what made them unethical, and how that unethicality was concealed from the general public.

Note: Contains some mildly graphic content.

E2179: Be Your Best Self: Dressing the Part
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Michaela Cloutier

An overview of everyday female and male street fashion, how to impress your teachers by dressing nicely, and appropriate attire for certain special occasions. We will use live models to demonstrate certain concepts and students are encouraged to bring questions and pictures of outfits for discussion.

E2180: Latin Ballroom Dancing
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Dale Tager

Basic steps in Salsa, cha-cha, Samba. All levels welcome. No partners necessary.

Prerequisites
No experience necessary

E2181: Introduction to Tree Identification
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Madelon Case

Most of us suffer from "plant blindness" - an inability to notice and recognize the diversity of plants that surround us every day. Consider this class a first step toward curing your plant blindness! We will learn some basic terms used by botanists to differentiate plants, and apply our new skills to practice identifying local trees.

E2182: Leadership and the ethical life
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Jackson Cole

What is leadership? Are students today prepared to be compassionate and empathetic drivers of change for the future? I'd spend my class time going over the topics of what makes a good leader and how to live an ethical life. While this wouldn't be a long class, I'd hope to expand these kids' perspectives on what a leader is and why the kids should start working towards being leaders today!

E2183: Myco-what? An Introduction to Fungi
Difficulty: *

They can control minds, communicate across hundreds of miles, mine for heavy metals, cure (and cause) disease, and are some the oldest and largest organisms in the world...Sound like science fiction? Welcome to the world of fungi! In this class, we’ll discuss the history of fungi, how they function in the environment, and also delve into some topics like mycorestoration and entomopathogenic fungi.

E2184: Fluorescence: the Chemistry of Light
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Yang Luo

What is fluorescence? What causes blood to glow at crime scenes? How chemists and biologists use this phenomenon to visualize our biological system? In this class, we will discuss the principles of light in chemical world and how they impact our life and scientific research.

E2185: Super Basic Origami for Beginners 101 Full!
Difficulty: *

Have fun learning select origami bases and how they can be transformed into classic shapes such as the basket, boat, and crane.

E2186: Zika: Finding a Cure Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Julia Tofan

Zika is a mosquito borne virus causing what the World Health Organization has deemed a current health emergency, but what's it origin? How does it spread? Where is it now? And, most importantly, how can we stop it? We'll explore the history, development, and most current news on Zika in this class.

E2187: Making "Dippin' Dots"
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Alden D'Souza

We will be briefly going over the science of ice cream, so that we can understand the process necessary to make dippin' dots.

Prerequisites
None

E2189: The Buckley Program: America's Constitution: What it is and why it matters
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Pranam Dey

What is the American Constitution? Why is it the Supreme Law of the Land? How did it come into existence? How has it changed over time? And above all, why should you care, and how does it affect you? Since 1787, Americans have lived under the rule of the Constitution and have fought and died defending it. The Constitution has shaped the course of American and even world history, and other nations have based their own constitutions on our model. During these 50 minutes, let's go over the origins and structure of the Constitution, then cover how it shaped our history and continues to guide us today and into the future.

E2191: Ancient Greek History
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Eli Westerman

Why do the Ancient Greeks matter? What can we learn from them today? This class will cover Ancient Greek history from the shadowy world of Homer to the conquests of Alexander the Great. After an overview of Greek civilization, we'll discuss the implications of Greek history for the modern world. We'll have Greek yogurt with honey -- a traditional Greek treat that Agamemnon, Leonidas, and Sappho probably enjoyed!

E2192: What do you think and what would you do?
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Melissa Mendizabal

In this class we will attempt to answer the biggest question in psychology: why people choose to do what they do. We will explore the greatest experiments in psychology and analyze people's reactions to these experiments. Students will be given a chance to participate in psychology surveys and simple tests. Basic principles of psychology will also be explained. Students will then participate in a mini psychology experiment.

E2193: Writers Anonymous
Difficulty: *

Do you want to become a modern Shakespeare? Then, come take Writers Anonymous, where you will have the chance to learn the writing fundamentals by trying them out in fun and experimental ways. Students will be able to partake in creative writing exercises and share their own works.

E2195: Is School Failing You?
Difficulty: **

Educational issues are common political topics from local to state elections, but it often misses the fact that real students suffer consequences of bad policies and failing school. This class will examine some of the issues of educational policy, best practices, and personal experiences.

E2197: The Politics of Natural Resources
Difficulty: **

How natural resources affect developing economies, public policy, and international interest in regions. A focus on authoritarian governments in Africa and the Middle East.

E2200: Baby Brains and Toddler Thinking Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Rachel Han

Ever wondered what's going on inside a baby's brain? Come on a journey through the minds of young children as we discuss some key studies, concepts, and insights from developmental psychology!

E2168: Unscrambling the Cube
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Calvin Jahnke

Has there been a Rubik's Cube sitting on your shelf for the past few years and you just haven't been able to solve it? This class will give you the skills you need to solve the cube and impress your friends and family!

Prerequisites
Bring a Rubik's Cube (if you have one)

E2143: The Matrix: A Mathematical Construct
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Andrew Saydjari

This course will cover matrices from start to finish. The basic underpinnings of matrix operations and multiplication will be motivated (as well as their relation to abstract mathematical structure and spaces). Further, the course will attempt to give a strong understanding of the "right" way to think about matrices, such that generalization to tensors is easy.

Prerequisites
None other than a willingness to push the boundaries of what you know. Some experience with vectors may be helpful, but not necessary.