Sprout Spring 16
Course Catalog

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Core Class Elective


Core Class

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C1877: Wanna Be the Very Best: Introduction to Competitive Pokémon Battling
Difficulty: ***

Do you want to be the very best, like no one was before ? Do you find the trainers in Pokémon a little too easy ? Do you want to learn about a new, competitive, fun way to experience Pokémon ? Then this class is for you !
We will cover the basics of competitive battling, including gameplay, team design, and tiers, over two days. On the final day of class, we will have a bracket-style tournament, where you will battle each other using the teams you built yourselves during this class ! Prizes will be awarded ! Walk away with the knowledge and experience to enter regional tournaments and battle your friends like never before.

**If you took this course in the fall semester, you are ineligible to take this course again.**


Prerequisites
*MUST bring a Nintendo 2DS or 3DS and a copy of Pokémon Omega Ruby/Alpha Sapphire (preferred) or Pokémon X/Y, completed through beating the Elite Four. *Course assumes basic understanding of Pokémon battles (type matchups, statuses, moves)

C1900: Media and Conflict
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Joseph Tomchak

The class examines conflict and how it is portrayed through journalism and other media. It explores questions of bias, accuracy, and the complicated nature of covering issues when the truth is unclear. The class will end with an exercise designed to apply the skills and material covered in the class.

C1832: Organic Chemistry Full!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Ryan Malpass

A survey of organic chemistry, including topics such as:

* Structure and bonding of organic molecules
* Intermolecular forces
* Periodic trends
* Charge and Lewis structures
* Resonance structures
* Hybridization and molecular orbitals
* Acidity and basicity
* Kinetics and thermodynamics
* Reaction mechanisms
* Stereochemistry and molecular geometry
* Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
* Organic chemistry of life processes

3D molecular models will be used!


Prerequisites
General chemistry recommended but not required

C1880: The Geography of Happiness Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Angela Chen

Why is neutral Switzerland one of the world's happiest countries? Or why does Iceland, despite it's dark days, manage to be happier than tropical countries in the southern hemisphere? This course will explore different criteria for measuring and understanding happiness based on happiness models around the world. We will end the class by understanding how to achieve and maintain happiness for fuller, richer lives.

C1830: The History of the World in 240 Minutes
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Ethan France

This class will cover the entire length of human civilization -- around 5,400 years -- over the course of three meetings. Students will witness the rise and fall of civilizations, examine key events from all over the globe, and meet the men and women who shaped the course of history.

As you'd probably guess, this class will be broad in scope and and rapidly-paced. Students with a background in history may find it easier to follow and may gain more from the experience. All students, however, should emerge with a general sense of civilization's major developments and turning points.

The first meeting will cover the years from 3,400 BCE to 500 CE -- the beginning of civilization to the fall of the Roman Empire. The second meeting will cover the period from roughly 500 to 1750, covering the Medieval period and Renaissance and concluding at the start of the Industrial Revolution. The last meeting will move from that period to the present day -- 2016.


Prerequisites
There are no prerequisites to this course, but previous knowledge of world history may be helpful.

C1870: Introduction to Social Psychology
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Ale Estrada

Social psychology is just one branch of psychology and it is composed of the "study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others". In this course, we will be going over a basic introduction to the field. Topics will include conformity and group influence, emotions and nonverbal behavior, and the science of the self.


Prerequisites
Some basic understanding of Psychology

C1844: The Soviet Union Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Alexander Jacobson

This class will offer a introduction to the history of the Soviet Union, a nation which existed from 1917 to 1991. We will cover the October Revolution, the construction of industry in Russia, the Second World War, the nuclear arms race, and the fall of the USSR.

C1874: To Infinity and Beyond!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Daniel Hwang

How do you add people to a fully occupied infinite hotel? When we are little, we have a pretty basic understanding of infinity, how we can count and count and never end. But when we do more complicated work with infinity, it suddenly isn't so intuitive. How do we deal with that concept when it is applied to different theoretical scenarios? What can we learn from using infinitude in fractals?


Prerequisites
Basic algebra (understand addition, multiplication, exponents)

C1866: The Rwandan Genocide and the World's Silence
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Sheila Qasemi

The Rwandan Genocide began on April 7, 1994, and after 100 days close to a million people were murdered. In this course, we will explore the meaning of "genocide" and reflect on major examples of genocide in history. We will analyze the underlying causes of the Rwandan genocide, specifically focusing on the Hutu and Tutsi conflict. We will discover how many countries of the Western world, including the United States, remained largely silent. Finally, we will discuss how Rwandans are healing and forgiving one another twenty-two years later.

C1860: How to Talk When It Matters
Difficulty: **

Do you freeze up while presenting? Do you rely too much on your notes? Fear not—this course will show you how to think on top of your toes and be confident when speaking in front of others. This class will also provide tips on how to resolve conflicts and be comfortable during college interviews.

C1845: An Introduction to Skepticism
Difficulty: **
Teachers: John Ventura

What actually is science? How is logical different from illogical? Admittedly, one of the most important outcomes of education is learning how to think. Today we live with persistent distraction and seemingly endless amounts of information. We are all guilty of flawed thinking and logical fallacies and we associate with people who are simply unaware of, or even worse, trying to gain from, misinformation. Therefore, we must learn how to distinguish between clear thinking and irrational thinking, good science from pseudoscience. This class is a simple introduction to the topic of skepticism and logic, and how we perceive truth in science and our daily lives.


Prerequisites
The will to challenge, argue, and a sense of fun!

C1839: Introduction to the Molecular Biology of Cancer
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Peter Wang

This class will give an overview of the knowledge scientists have gained after decades of studying cancer at the molecular level. The class will go through different types of factors that usually drive cancer growth, the molecular mechanisms behind their effects, and other cellular phenomena (e.g. chromosomal instability) that could affect cancerous growth. The class will also provide examples of how modern medicine makes use of molecular knowledge to tackle cancer.


Prerequisites
Basic knowledge about molecular biology (DNA, proteins, genes) and some chemistry recommended.

C1858: Punsmithry: Building Your Verbal Arsenal
Difficulty: **

Alfred Hitchcock once said that puns are the highest form of literature. Yet most today would deem puns the lowest of common humor, let alone a kind of “literature.” What should we make of this “punundrum”? This course will explore a form of language well suited for both the erudite and the street-smart, from the various classifications of puns to the evolution of wordplay throughout history. The first class will explore the history of puns – from Babylonian epic to ancient Roman political oratory to Shakespeare – and how its status and usage have changed throughout time. The second class will take you through the various types of puns commonly in use today and their syntax, with plenty of exercise throughout in generating puns. The third class will investigate the modern state of puns, ranging from their usage in newspaper headlines to their role in censorship subversion in China to the psychology of “The Groan.” We will also examine the emergence of modern “pun-off” competitions, culminating in our very own pun-off for the class. If you are seeking to elicit admiration and groans from your peers, to finally figure out how dad jokes work, or to simply ruin lives, this course is for you.


Prerequisites
A sense of humor and an appreciation for language.

C1863: The Fibonacci Sequence and Other Recurrences
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Milo Brandt

Ever wondered where the seemingly magical formulae for Fibonacci numbers and other recursive sequences come from? Wish you could derive impressive results with just a little algebra? In this class, we will explore the concept of a generating function, which lets us apply algebraic techniques to determine closed forms for a large variety of recursive sequences. We will go into depth to show a variety of insights lent by this point of view.


Prerequisites
A solid understanding of algebra will be necessary.

C1903: The Basics of Protein Design Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Karina Xie

Proteins have it all: they help our muscles move, they break down bacteria, they help cells talk with each other... the list goes on and on! Together we'll learn about the structure, design, and function of proteins with protein folding activities and video clips.


Prerequisites
Excitement about biology!

C1876: Being A Princess: A Look Into Disney
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Daniel Hwang

Being a princess is tough work. Sometimes. In this class, we will critically analyze how Disney princesses are portrayed, their interactions with other characters, their strengths, and their faults, as well as look at the princesses in the context of the Disney empire and time period. Come prepared to rethink how you feel about some of the most iconic animated films.


Prerequisites
Willingness to look past nostalgia Familiarity with at least one Disney princess

C1875: Writing About Ourselves Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Ashia Ajani

Do you have a story that needs to be told? Are you curious about seeing how influential family or cultural history can be while writing? In this class we will explore different mediums (non-fiction, short essay, poetry) and different authors (Audre Lorde, Sandra Cisneros, Junot Diaz) where cultural and familial influence in strongly embedded in the work. We will explore how our stories, no matter how similar they are, are especially unique because they belong to us.


Prerequisites
Love of writing!


Elective

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E1847: Introduction to Ballroom Dancing Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Daniel Pham

Get on your feet and dance!
This is a crash course on Ballroom Dancing. Think Fred Astaire or, more recently, Dancing With the Stars. Dances we'll be covering: the romantic and elegant Waltz, and the energetic and flirtatious Cha-Cha.
NO DANCE EXPERIENCE REQUIRED

E1851: Programming from Scratch Full!
Difficulty: **

Ever wanted to learn how to think like a programmer and produce your own games, interactive art, or animations that you can share with friends? In this class, we'll be working with Scratch. Scratch is a visual programming language and fun stepping stone into the world of coding. For beginners. (Pong/Maze Game)


Prerequisites
None preferred.

E1885: Ice Cream Galore
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Katherine Brumberg

Do you love ice cream? Have you ever wondered how it came about? Or what flavors and brands are truly the best? Come play jeopardy and learn about ice cream history, statistics, flavors, and more!

E1873: Epigenetics Full!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Alden D'Souza

Epigenetics is the study of the variation in your genes caused by external factors. This course will try and explain why this matters for your day to day life and future.


Prerequisites
Ninth grade biology.

E1897: Bread Worth Eating Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Rachel Han

What makes bread delicious? Come learn about the bread-making techniques that give rise to different flavors, textures and dining experiences! We will survey bread from across the world and sample a few locally made breads :)

E1848: Introduction to Ballroom Dancing Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Daniel Pham

Get on your feet and dance!
This is a crash course on Ballroom Dancing. Think Fred Astaire or, more recently, Dancing With the Stars. Dances we'll be covering: the romantic and elegant Waltz, and the energetic and flirtatious Cha-Cha.
NO DANCE EXPERIENCE REQUIRED

E1859: "Why are we taking SO many tests?" — Education Reform and the Accountability Movement
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Wayne Zhang

Let's face it: pretty much no one likes taking tests. At best, they're boring; at worst, they're stressful.

But recently, schools across the nation have seen a dramatic increase in the amount of tests administered, the amount of school time spent testing, and the range of subjects tested. A natural question from any student might be: why are we taking more tests? What do tests seek to measure? Why are they important? Are they important?

Discussion in this class will be centered around modern education reform, and the accountability movement—including things such as George W. Bush's "No Child Left Behind", and Barack Obama's "Race to the Top".

E1888: Nothing Full!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Qianyi Qin

Have you ever thought about the idea of “nothing”? We live in a world full of things. Look around your bedroom and you will see pens, chairs, lamps. Look out of the window and there are trees, streets and people walking by. Where can you see “nothing”? It’s really quite impossible for us to imagine what nothing looks like! European metaphysics has historically concerned itself with things and being. Yet in order to articulate what things are and what they do, philosophers often made use of the concept of nothing. Leibniz, for example, formulated the most fundamental philosophical question as “Why is there something rather than nothing?” But still, the meaning and function of “nothing” remains obscure.

Is nothing something? What kind of thing is it? Are there different kinds of nothing? How can we even speak of “nothing" when we can’t find its referent in this world? Nothing seems to be total negation of all the things that we obviously have in this world and therefore is a meaningless linguistic formulation. But negative terms like “non”, “not”, “-less”, “void”, “absence” and ”void” can be important to philosophical projects. Ancient Chinese thinker Lao Zi says that “Nameless is the beginning of heaven and earth.” The Buddha tells us that the world is empty “insofar as it is empty of a self or of anything pertaining to a self.” 

In this class, we will explore the idea of nothing with the help of texts from ancient Chinese thought, Buddhism and western philosophy. We will also share our experiences of nothing (if we have any experiences of it!). Come to this class if you enjoy perplexity and thinking about nothing!

E1890: The Psychology and Biology of Eating Disorders Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Jessica Schmerler

Common misperceptions about eating disorders are that they are all about losing weight, that people who have them are self-absorbed, or that the food-related behaviors are voluntary. This course will discuss the various types of eating disorders, with a specific focus on psychological and biological symptoms and treatment.

E1842: Chocolate: An Overview
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Sara Deeter

We will be discussing chocolate in both a historical and contemporary context--its use, production, nutritional benefits, and its future as a potentially endangered food product.

E1867: Just a (qu)bit of Quantum Computing
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Jacob Marks

Join the quantum revolution! Come learn about spooky "action at a distance", Schrodinger's cat, and how all of this is challenging our notions of information security. Let's collapse some wave-functions, and rethink what it means to 'compute'!


Prerequisites
A genuine curiosity - they say curiosity killed (schrodinger's) cat - and an open mind. Chemistry and Physics would help but are not required.

E1892: Fermi Questions
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Arsalan Sufi

How many atoms are there in the universe? How many gallons of water are there in the Pacific Ocean? How many bytes of data are there on the internet? How many cells are there in the human body? How many piano tuners are there in New York City? Fermi questions seek rough estimates of quantities that are otherwise impossible to measure. In this class, you'll learn how to tackle these seemingly absurd problems!


Prerequisites
Some familiarity with exponents

E1865: Role of the Vascular System in Disease
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Ashley Bauer

This class will cover general vascular biology and its role in common diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Ongoing cardiovascular research in these areas and their potential impact will be briefly introduced.

E1882: Who Run the World?: Feminism in the Era of Beyonce Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Annie Chen, Colin Hill

Beyonce's meteoric rise to stardom is a result of much more than just her catchy beats and stunning dance moves! We will examine, through critical analysis of lyrics and music videos, how Beyonce has empowered a generation of girls to embrace their ~flawless~ selves.

We will look at current feminist ideas and how they are expressed through songs and music videos like:

"If I Were a Boy"
"Run the World (Girls)"
"I Was Here"
...and many more!


Prerequisites
Although we will be omitting Beyonce's most "adult" songs, some of her lyrics deal with mature themes and may contain some mildly offensive language. We will only include this type of material when it is constructive to our discussions of feminism, but we nonetheless encourage parents to make an educated decision about whether this class is a a good fit for their child.

E1894: Random Walks and the Central Limit Theorem
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Milo Brandt

In this class, we will discuss the concept of a random walk, exploring the deep behavior that arises from the process of randomly moving left and right on a line, and its connections to statistics and combinatorics.


Prerequisites
Some familiarity with algebra will be helpful.

E1909: Performance Psychology: How to do well under pressure Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Daniel Henick

This course goes over some of the techniques and practices that help performers of all kinds focus and do better under pressure.

E1883: Cats > Dogs, the Scientific Facts Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Katherine Brumberg

Calling all cat lovers! Come learn the science behind why cats are better than dogs! You'll have all the proof you need to back you up when misguided people disagree.

E1899: Zzz All About Sleep
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Emmy Yang

What happens in your body when you fall asleep? How much sleep do we really need? In this class, you will find the answers to these questions and more on the science of snoozing. Come alert and leave prepared to get better sleep at night.

E1852: The Present as History, 1989-2016
Difficulty: **
Teachers: J.Y. Chua

Survey of political, economic, and social transformations since the end of the Cold War in 1989. Global perspective on the apparent triumph of liberalism, and challenges to its dominance. Effects of Islamic fundamentalism, the rise of China, 9/11 and the "War on Terror," and civil conflicts around the world.

E1868: The Science behind Game of Thrones: Going beyond the wall plus.
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Samuel Maritim

This class will introduce you to the science behind many of the events in game of thrones.
Spoiler alert!!!

From the wildfire that destroyed Stannis' ships at Blackwater, to the essence of the night shade. We'll also look at the debilitating diseases that afflicted Jojen Reed and Brandon stark as well as build scientifically plausible theories about lady Mellisandre's magic and 'the gift' from the many-faced god that Arya is entrusted with in Bravos.


Prerequisites
The class will be interesting if you have watched game of thrones.

E1881: The Politics of Punk Rock
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Chris Bowman

Since its emergence in the 1970s, punk rock has been one of the world's most politically-charged and controversial music genres. In this class, we'll listen to a selection of British and American punk rock songs and analyze their political significance. Topics will include criticism of governments and police authority, warfare, environmentalism and consumerism. We'll listen to songs by the Clash, Rise Against, Anti-Flag, Green Day and more!

E1905: Beatlemania
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Kuan Jiang

Ladies and gentlemen... The Beatles! This course will cover a brief history of the band, starting from their humble beginnings in Liverpool to their last recording session at Trident Studios. We will also discuss key post-1970 events and their influence in today's culture. Throughout the class, we will listen to the band's recordings and analyze the evolution in their sound as they progressed. Fans and non-fans alike are welcome to take this course. Come learn about one of the greatest rock bands of all time!

E1879: Explore Hawai'i
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Stephanie Spear

Every culture has its own style of dance. Come join this class to learn a little bit about the hula, the dance of the Hawaiian people, and the Hawaiian culture! Aloha!


Prerequisites
Positive attitude and open mindedness!

E1861: Introduction to Game Theory: How to Make Smart Decisions Full!
Difficulty: **

An introduction to mathematical game theory, studying how to use logic and probability to make intelligent, rational decisions in games. Will include discussions of payoff matrices, the Prisoner's Dilemma, the role of randomness in optimal strategies, and other similar topics.


Prerequisites
Basic knowledge of algebra would be useful.

E1871: Is Free Will an Illusion?
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Nitya Rayapati

Free will: the idea that we are the true sources of our choices. The advent of new techniques in neuroscience, psychology, and physics have challenged philosophical conceptions of free will. We'll discuss these arguments and try to answer the question: do we have free will?

E1895: Nimbers (Not Numbers)
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Milo Brandt

Nimbers are a powerful tool which can reduce some simple games of strategy to mere calculating with a funny system of "numbers" called nimbers. We will talk about the winning strategy for the game of picking stones (Nim) and other simple games.

E1854: Home Is Where the Heart Is. On Becoming International Student (and Exploring the World)
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Vanda Cernohorska

Have you ever dreamt about exploring the world? Come join me, an international student from Europe, as we will talk about the many advantages (but also challenges!) of packing your suitcase and setting out on an adventure of your life.

E1889: From Chopin to Sheeran: How to Write Music
Difficulty: **
Teachers: John Baxter

Do you play an instrument of any sort? Do you sing? Do you just want to learn more about music? Well come learn about the fundamentals of music such as melody, harmony, and rhythm so that you can begin creating your own music! We'll be discussing key signatures, improv, recording basics, and the music industry. Create, create, create!

E1878: Positivity: The Power of Optimism
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Caitlin Dermody

Discover the world of Positivity with a sweet treat learning experience.


Prerequisites
N/a

E1835: Model College Admissions Committee
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Amy Estersohn

In this session, students will explore issues relating to college admissions by roleplaying a college admissions officer making recommendations on whom to admit to the Dean of Admissions. After discussing model candidates and voting (or intensely arguing) about the outcomes, there will be opportunity for Q+A.

The teacher of this class used to work in undergraduate admissions for a highly selective college.

E1884: History of Brazil
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Adriana Gradilla

Survey courses that will discuss the history of Brazil. Since it is a survey course, broad topics like slavery, economy, and racial relations will be touched upon.


Prerequisites
none

E1849: The American Concentration Camp: Japanese American Internment and Resettlement
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Daniel Pham

February 1942. Executive Order 9066. As the United States military was mobilizing for the Second World War, President Roosevelt authorized one of the most infamous civil rights affronts in American history. Over 100,000 Japanese Americans were forced out of their homes and held against their will in camps in the US interior.
This class will explore the following questions:
How was internment allowed to happen?
What hardships did Japanese American internees experience in these camps?
And what happened to them after the the war came to an end?
And more!

E1838: Scientists Behaving Badly: Plagiarism, Fabrication of Data, and worse Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Benjamin Rudshteyn

Scientists are supposed to follow the Scientific Method, but sometimes they mess up along the way. We will discuss stories of data fabrication, plagiarism, misrepresentation of data, and more. Sometimes it is not even their fault. Do not believe everything you read. Case studies include the Bengu Sezen affair, the spoof article by John Bohannon, and the curious "nano chopsticks".


Prerequisites
Science course with a laboratory component.

E1855: Why Play Nice?: Cooperation in Evolution Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Milo Brandt

"Survival of the fittest" suggests that evolution is a fight, each organism vying for its own survival. Yet, in nature, we observe organisms cooperating and even making sacrifices for one another. Learn how evolution encourages cooperative behavior by playing simple games and using the lens of games to shed light on this peculiar aspect of evolution.

E1896: Baby Brains and Toddler Thinking
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Rachel Han

Ever wondered what's going on inside a baby's brain? Come on a journey through the minds of young children as we discuss some key studies, concepts, and insights from developmental psychology!

E1853: 3D-Printing the Kidney: Tissue Engineering of the 21st Century
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Kevin Hwang

In 2011, surgeon Anthony Atala 3D-printed a rough prototype of a human kidney on-stage before a TEDx talk audience, and immediately brought forth a wave of renewed focus on 3D-printed body parts and their applications in medicine. This course will introduce the concept of tissue engineering, and the differential expression of the genetic code in forming disparate tissues. The wide variety of cell types will be addressed, as well as the associated engineering challenge of creating proper mimics of such great physiological diversity. Historical forms of tissue replacement and their strengths/flaws will be discussed, ranging from early wooden prosthetics to modern prosthetics. Surgical replacement or addition of tissues and the challenges associated with them will be presented, followed by the aspects of the tissue engineering that can address these issues. Techniques such as matrix modeling, materials engineering, and ex vivo growth and implantation will be introduced. Finally, case studies on 3D printed kidneys and artificial lungs developed at Yale will be analyzed, as well as institutional methods and debates in promoting tissue engineering research. Students will walk away with an understanding of what issues fall under the domain of tissue engineering, and some of the more technical issues that tissue engineers or biomedical engineering has to deal with. Students will also be able to understand some of the policy considerations, such as implications of particular technologies like replacement limbs vs. regrown limbs on company profits, and how that plays out in the political system and lobbying system of the United States.


Prerequisites
None

E1837: Chemophobia: What's a Chemical?
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Benjamin Rudshteyn

This class gives an overview of the phenomenon of chemophobia, the fear of chemicals (not of organic chemistry as a class!). It will define the terminology of chemicals, including the difference between natural and artificial chemicals and how one is not necessarily better than the other.


Prerequisites
High school level chemistry

E1843: Introduction to Japanese Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Alexa Little

今日は!(Hello!)

Have you always wanted to speak Japanese? Are you curious about Japanese language and culture?

In this class, we'll cover the basics of Japanese pronunciation, the three writing systems, and some important words and phrases. I'll also share some resources for studying Japanese on your own!

E1846: Son of a Samurai: The Life of a Global Historian Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Daniel Pham

Why do we study history?
Kan'ichi Asakawa has an answer for us.
In this class, we will be looking at the life of Professor Asakawa, the first Japanese-American professor to teach at Yale. He was the son of a samurai, an immigrant-historian, and a diplomat on the world stage. His life challenges our notions of nationhood and the mind of the historian.
Topics include: The Boshin War and the Fall of the Shogun, Japanese American Immigration, and the Second World War

E1862: Codes and Ciphers: The Secret Language of Spies Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Saran Morgan

Learn about the history of cryptology in a global context and how to send secret messages to your friends! Topics include Pigpen ciphers, Caesar cipher, transposition matrices, and more.

E1898: Yoga, Meditation, and Your Brain
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Leila Murphy

Many people talk about the benefits of yoga and meditation -- but do they actually know how these practices impact your brain? In this class, we'll talk about how these activities (and other "mindful" practices) can help you relieve stress, focus better, and live a happier life. They do this by changing the shape of your brain -- so we'll get into the neuroscience of it! (If you have no idea what neuroscience is, don't worry, we'll go over it). We'll also practice a bit of simple yoga and meditation, so you can see the effects for yourself. You can get something out of this class if you're interested in meditation, yoga, the brain, or are just curious to see what the hype's all about!


Prerequisites
Nothing!

E1834: Psychology of Happiness
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Amy Estersohn

Many teens think they'll be happy if they get into a top choice college or if they get a new phone. They assume that a bad grade, a breakup, or a broken bone will make them miserable.

However, psychologists who study happiness have learned that happiness is more like a skill that can be acquired and needs constant practice than a state of being.

In this session, we'll review some of the basics of what happiness psychologists have discovered and we'll practice some happiness-increasing techniques. We won't need a million dollars or a new smart phone: all we'll use are a paper and pen.

E1864: Top Secret: Unethical Human Experiments of the 20th Century Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Sarah Abdallah

From illegal drug testing, to secret chemical weapons development, to psychological torture, scientific research has long been marred by unethical practices. This course will cover the details of several infamous experiments on human subjects, what made them unethical, and how that unethicality was concealed from the general public.

Note: Contains some mildly graphic content.

E1836: Build a 3D Block Puzzle Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Gabriel Davis

Soma is a cube-based 3D dissection puzzle, invented by Danish mathematician Piet Hien in 1933. In this session, each student will build their own Soma puzzle out of wood cubes to take home, and then try their hand at a succession of challenges. We'll also take a brief look at some of the math behind it (without getting too technical) and make comparisons to other block games-- including Tetris.

This class will appeal to anyone who likes puzzles or mathematical games, but is new to the Soma puzzle.


Prerequisites
None

E1840: Gay Pride, Gender Outlaws, and Radical Love
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Emily Golding

Come learn about the LGBTQ+ world history and culture that your AP World teacher will never tell you was queer–from ancient Rome to China's Han Dynasty to the the Wild West and more.

E1841: Activism, the United States, and you!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Trinh Truong

Virtually every major change in the United States involved American citizens working together to campaign for what they believed in. Activism has been an important, if not the most important, driving force for social and political change in the United States. This course will explore the role of activism behind major moments in United States history like the American Revolution, the Civil Rights Movement, and the modern day education reform movement. It will also explore the different forms of activism and how people today can take part in it. If you are looking to discover the importance of activism, or are interested in becoming an activist, this class is where you belong!

E1850: Introduction to Blackjack and Card Counting
Difficulty: **

In this course we will cover the rules of blackjack as well as the fundamentals and mathematics of card counting. We will examine techniques used to discourage card counting and why they are effective. Finally, we will put our knowledge into practice by playing blackjack.


Prerequisites
None

E1872: Basics of Poker
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Ben Zollinger

The Basics of Texas Hold'em will be taught.
What will be reviewed:
General Gameplay and Rules
The value of different cards and hands
How to Bet
General playing strategies for beginners

And then the only way to really know the game is to play!

E1886: Water Bottles!
Difficulty: *

Have you ever used a water bottle? Americans use 50 billion per year. In this class we'll discuss the science behind water bottles - what they're made of, how they're made, and why you should care.

E1887: Copyright and the Law
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Laurel Lehman

Why is your parody getting taken off YouTube? Don't you have the right to artistic expression? Why didn't that OTHER parody get taken down? What even is a copyright? Why did Glee get sued over it? Discuss YouTube, copyright, and mash-ups in the framework of the law.

E1891: P ≠ NP: The obvious answer without a solution
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Jeffrey Lai

P vs. NP is the central problem of theoretical computer science, providing the first formally articulated way of describing why some problems are hard to compute and some are easy. The problem is somewhat infamous for not only being unsolved and seemingly unsolvable, but for also being somewhat obvious in its answer.

This course will spend time on explaining what the problem, why it is so important, and then demonstrating some evidence that P ≠ NP. Prior knowledge of P vs. NP is not required, however some background with computer science and physics is preferred, as we will draw from these areas.


Prerequisites
A basic science education. Some exposure to physics and computer science is preferred.

E1893: The Art of Letter Writing
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Ariege Besson

When is the last time you wrote a letter by hand? Come and rediscover the magic of handwritten words. (HINT: It’s cooler than a snap story!) Take some time to learn about traditions with letters and write your very own to a friend, a family member or your future self!

E1904: What Makes a Good President?
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Laurence Li

Everybody knows how great George and Abe were, but what about presidents like Lyndon B. Johnson and James Polk? This class will examine three presidents with mixed legacies (LBJ, James Polk, and Theodore Roosevelt), and help students understand the long-term consequences of each president's actions. Evidence will be presented for each president, and at the end students will collectively vote on each president's "grade."


Prerequisites
A previous American History course recommended, but by no means required.

E1910: Feathers, Flight, and Phylogeny: The Science of Birds Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Molly Mullen

In this class, we'll explore questions related to the biology of birds: Why do feathers look the way they do? How does flight work? And of course, which came first: the chicken or the egg?


Prerequisites
Curiosity and a willingness to be wrong.

E1911: Listen Up Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Brian Orozco

Listen up! Why and how do we listen? What noises are around us that we've grown to accept? What noises bother us that we can't seem to forget? How well do you know your neighborhood? What does it mean to walk around listening to an i-Pod? Interested in the philosophy and psychology behind sounds and our perception of them?

E1912: Structure of the Internet
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Alex Reinking

When you visit a website, what is actually happening? Learn about how websites are created, what goes on in the background, and how they ultimately end up on your computer.