Splash Spring 12
Course Catalog

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Arts Engineering
Humanities Math & Computer Science
Science Miscellaneous

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Arts

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A105: Not Just Clocks: A Survey of Surrealist Art Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Natalie Wolff

Most people are familiar with Salvador Dali's series of famous melting clocks paintings, but few realize that the Surrealist movement neither began nor ended with these works. In this course, we'll take a look at the origins and progression of Surrealism in visual art in order to identify some key features of the movement. Artists will include Giorgio de Chirico, Max Ernst, Paul Klee, Joan Miro, and others (and if you're a huge Dali fan, never fear! We'll see some of his stuff too.)

A104: Fifty Minutes of Reading Cool Poetry
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Darren Gooden

Reading and talking about cool poetry in a relaxed environment. If you like the poems we read, we could talk about why a poem *works*.


Prerequisites
none

A77: Introduction to Oil Painting Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: C C

Do you enjoy (or, if you have never oil painted before, do you think you would enjoy) putting oil onto canvas, saturating brush tips with mixed pigments, and creating meaning from strokes and colors? Then this class is for you! Come paint and make new friends!


Prerequisites
This class is meant for beginning oil painters, but more advanced oil painters are welcome! After all, no one can fully master the art of oil painting. There is always something new to learn. Students are expected to know how to draw and copy images using paper and pencil.

A61: Seeing through Photography Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Victor Kang

How taking photos teaches you to see the world - its beauty, its symmetry, its people. Analyzing what makes a photograph good, and what they can show, and how photographers see the world in their own special way.

A114: Beginner's Improv Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Juliet deButts

An exploration of improvisational acting using theater games and physical exercises. Loosen up, try something new, learn that you think faster than you knew you could. Speak gibberish, pretend to be an elephant, wait at a bus stop with increasingly odd strangers... and don't forget to say yes!
Not intended for experienced actors.


Prerequisites
A sense of humor and willingness to participate!


Engineering

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E85: Synthetic Biology: Redesigning Life
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Aaron Lewis

It's been forty years since we learned how to read, write and clone a genome. How are we using these tools to remake life in the service of society, and what's next? Topics include artificial cells, biofuels, antifreeze proteins and fluorescent cats.

E124: Racecars - From the Team to the Track Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Yusuf Chauhan

This course will cover the basics of a student- run hybrid racing team. We will cover a broad variety of topics including the science behind automobile racing, the components of a racing team, and an in-depth look at Yale's own racing team.


Humanities

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H74: Poetry and Logic
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Joshua Tan

Introduction to beauty and "the sublime" through the lens of logic and mathematics.

More arts-oriented counterpart to "Logic and Poetry" in the Math & Science category.

H82: Language Detectives: The Puzzling Logic of Language Full!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Alex Lew

How do languages work? We’ll begin to answer this question by analyzing languages both foreign and familiar to see what makes them tick. Students will take on the role of “language detective,” as they try to unearth clues about languages from limited and fragmented information. Reason and logic will be our tools as we attempt to crack the code of Linear B, decipher passages of Ancient Greek, and figure out the scripts of the languages of far-off countries. If you like languages or logic puzzles, this class is for you!

H80: Psychology of Music and Art Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Amy Estersohn

Why do we like the arts? Why do our brains react a certain way to rhythms, sounds, and colors?

This class will be an in-depth attempt to treat these questions and more!

H89: History of Harcerstwo: Secret Agent Paramilitary Boy Scouts
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Lucas Wozny

How did teenage secret agents decisively influence the outcome of both world wars? How did they come up with a secret language that even the Germans couldn't crack? After some training, can you decipher their code?

This course covers a history of harcerstwo from the time of its conception in 1910 by Andrzej Malkowski, to its influence on the first world war, the second world war, with particular focus on the Battle of Britain and the Warsaw Uprising, to the present day. Prizes will given out at the end of class to the winners of a contest.

H127: The Ten Commandments Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Elias Kleinbock

Using methods of biblical exegesis and literary analysis, we will discuss the varying interpretation and method of reading the 10 Commandments in Exodus. We will discuss the function of law in a religious community, the concept of a "covenant" between humans and God, and the meaning of commandments such as the prohibition of idolatry and the establishment of the Sabbath. If you want to dive to the core of one of the foundational texts of Western civilization, or are just interested in talking about a few fascinating ideas, come on by!


Prerequisites
Reading ability preferred.

H55: Endangered Languages
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Catherine Sheard

There are nearly 7000 languages currently spoken on Earth, but over half of them will be gone by the end of this century. What makes a language endangered? Where are these endangered languages spoken? Why do we care about endangered languages? What are some of the social and political factors driving language extinction, and why might "language extinction" be a misleading or even insulting term? What hope is there for language revitalization? Case studies will be drawn from all over the world, with particular focus on Australia and the Himalayas, and no background in linguistics is assumed.

H90: History of China 1945-1961: Mao's Rise to Power and Abuse of It
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Lucas Wozny

The course will examine how Chiang-Kai Shek's Guomintang government squandered its numerous advantages after the Second Sino-Japanese War and allowed Mao's Chinese Communist Party (CCP) to rise to power.

Thereafter, the course will balance China's competition with the Soviet Union as leader of the world Communist movement against its domestic failures, focusing on the Socialist High Tide and Great Leap Forward. How were the two connected?

Finally, the course will trace the life of intellectuals in early Communist China. How would extremely gifted high school students have been treated under Mao?


Prerequisites
Knowledge of the existence of the Cold War

H128: The Surreal in Literature -- Short Stories by Julio Cortazar Full!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Elias Kleinbock

Find out how a piece of literature can entirely invert your perspective on life. Julio Cortazar's short stories are full of confused identity and fantastical elements and are AWESOME.

H57: VIKINGS! An Introduction to Icelandic Literature and People Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Catherine Sheard

Ever wanted to know if Vikings really did wear those funny helmets with horns?

No?

Well, then, ever wanted to hear about a man who conducted diplomacy by dragging a polar bear all over Europe? Or how about a a cross-dressing god with a thing for giants? Ever wanted to find out who REALLY discovered North America? Or wanted to study Ancient Runes like Hermione Granger, read the stories that inspired Tolkien to write The Lord of the Rings, or just see pretty pictures of Iceland? Well, then, you're in luck, because in this class we'll do all that...and more!


Prerequisites
If you have some background in Germanic languages (Old/Middle English, German, any of the Scandinavian languages, etc) that would be awesome, but as long as you like languages or language puzzles and/or really want to learn about a country where the phonebook's alphabetized by first name and the mountains are called things like Eyjafjallajokull, you're more than welcome.

H63: Detroit and the Shrinking City
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Alan Sage

Interested in what makes a city live or die? This course will explore the broad urban themes that have led many major American cities, like
Detroit, to lose their economic bases and be left with huge plots of empty land and decaying structures. We will then discuss techniques to combat shrinking cities, ranging from the brilliant to the absurd.

H71: Reading and Writing Good Essays Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Soonwook Hong

In this class, we will discuss what a "good" academic essay is, read some examples of "good" academic writing, and discuss general strategies that we can incorporate into our own writing. The class will not cover personal narrative or creative writing.

After our discussion, we will do a little style exercise and then offer constructive criticism on each other's works.

H126: Philosophy and Politics in the 21st Century
Difficulty: **

How can philosophy help us understand the world of the 21st century? On the one hand, it's been said that Western society has reached "the end of history," and that all the great philosophical questions about politics and government were answered when the Cold War ended in 1991. On the other, the chaos and unrest which has erupted worldwide in the past 20 years suggests that there are still philosophical battles being fought- they've just become harder to recognize. This class will cover a shortened history of modern political thought and discuss how contemporary philosophers have responded to events in the past decade, such as the September 11th attacks, the global war on terror and the financial crisis.


Prerequisites
A general knowledge of 20th century history and current events. A basic understanding of political philosophy is cool too, but not really necessary.

H108: The History and Ethnography of National Borders and Breakaway Provinces
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Brandon Araki

Borders are celebrations of human diversity but also fault lines of human conflict, where national sovereignty, ethnic allegiances, history, and geography converge to form a thin strip of land that bears the burden of separating the vast differences between different groups of people.
Today's borders did not materialize out of nowhere. Every border has a story of formation, from old borders that we take for granted, such as that between France and Spain, to the newest of borders, such as the one drawn last year between Sudan and South Sudan.
There are also borders that do not appear on the world map. Internal conflicts, such as the independence movement in Aden in southern Yemen, or the movement in the putative southern Indian state of Telangana to break off from Andhra Pradesh, occur within national borders. Other internal conflicts involve international borders, such as the efforts of the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan to join with Armenia, or the dream of the Kurds in the mountains of the Middle East to carve out chunks of five different countries to form their own independent nation. This class will take you on a whirlwind tour of the most interesting places in the world and will cover everything from the monumental events that defined borders to cool trivia about border quirks, and will hopefully leave you with a new appreciation for the borders that define our world.


Prerequisites
An interest in world affairs

H58: World Languages Full!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Dan Mitropolsky

In this class, you'll be introduced to all of the world's major languages, including the essential and fascinating elements of their grammars, lexicons and scripts! Together we'll explore the major language 'families' and the similarities and differences between languages. With a puzzle-solving approach, you'll learn to crack fun linguistic problems and codes, and will leave with an awareness and understanding of both the diversity of human language, as well as the notion of what "language" really is.

H62: Is God Dead? Religious Identity in Modern America
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Mary Shi

One of the founding tenants of the United States of America is separation of Church and State - however, we have arguably the most religious population of the developed world. The Arab Spring and the rise of religion in Asia make us question the role of religion modern life and the public sphere. Come for an examination of some critical approaches to these questions and a small group discussion about the role of religion in our civic and personal lives.


Prerequisites
None

H72: Intro to Japanese Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Kristi Oki

A basic introduction to spoken and written Japanese. We will review everyday phrases and practice writing 'hiragana' (one of the Japanese writing systems). No prior knowledge is necessary!

H76: What Happened to the British Empire?
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Josef Goodman

We'll examine the decline and fall of the largest empire in history. At the turn of the 20th century, a quarter of the globe was painted pink. Within fifty years, it was on its last legs. Join us for a discussion on the events and characters of the last chapter of this glorious empire.


Prerequisites
None.

H79: Psychology and Decision-Making
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Amy Estersohn

Have you ever seen a bad movie?? Do you know anybody who has ever seen a bad movie? Have you ever wondered why people tend to keep watching the bad movie, instead of walking out of the movie theater or turning the movie off?

If so, this course is for you! We'll discuss some of the shortcuts our brain uses for us, such as loss-aversion, sunk cost, diminishing gains, anchoring, and consistency-- in making daily decisions.

H81: Where does religion come from?
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Amy Estersohn

This class will be an in-depth (but by no means exhaustive) look into some of the ways philosophers, social scientists, and others have come to answer questions about religion. Bring your questions and be ready to talk!

H91: Witchcraft: Past and Present Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Elaine Kerr

A look at how popular understandings of what a 'witch' is have or have not changed over time. Discussion of several key incidents throughout history, including the burning of witches in Europe and the Salem witch trials. A consideration of modern witchcraft, including pagan and Wicca religions, and the recent increase in fascination with the occult. Ending with a look at representations of witches in pop culture, such as the Harry Potter series, the musical Wicked, and Disney movies like Snow White.

H109: Introduction to Italian Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Andrew Crouch

An introduction to Italian for people who know no Italian whatsoever.


Prerequisites
No knowledge of Italian


Math & Computer Science

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M66: Infinity and beyond! Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Lauren Berk

Remember when we were kids, and we tried to outdo each other with bigger numbers, until someone trumped with "infinity"? Ever try to respond "infinity plus one"? Ever been told that "infinity plus one is just infinity"? Not in this class!

We will learn about two kinds of counting. In the first kind, we will talk about the differences between "infinity plus one", "infinity plus infinity" and "infinity to the infinity"!

Then we will talk about infinities *even bigger* than those - infinities you can't even write as a list like (1, 2, 3, ...). In fact, there are infinitely many different infinities! How can we prove some infinities are bigger than others? How do we know how many infinities there are? Come find out!

M73: Logic and Poetry
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Joshua Tan

An introduction to model theory, "a mathematical theory of meaning", through the lens of poetry and art.

More math-oriented counterpart to "Poetry and Logic" in the Humanities category.

M60: Applications of elementary math
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Divyansh Agarwal

Mathematics is a great way to grasp concepts in other areas which may otherwise seem vague! This course will deal with some basic applications of everyday math. We will learn some basics of statistics and fractals that appear in everyday practice. The course aims at simply helping students appreciate the application of math in different areas of life and other academic disciplines.
It in some sense will also cover a basic history of Math, as in what people have done and some fun facts about simple problems!

M102: Algorithms
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Darren Gooden

Algorithms are sequences of instructions for doing things. If you've ever used a cookbook, or followed online instructions for installing a video game, you have used algorithms. We will look at interesting and useful algorithms, and try to analyze them. Class may include demonstration of some algorithms on a computer and other random and puzzling occurrences. :-)


Prerequisites
Only prerequisite is to spend time thinking about the following question: If I tell you how to do something (give you a sequence of instructions for doing it), how do you know that what I told you is *correct*??? oh, and knowing Math would be nice.

M64: The Geometry of Complex Numbers Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Daniel Thompson

The complex plane gives a surprisingly natural and beautiful way to describe geometry. We will give a brief introduction to the complex plane, and discuss how the complex can be used to answer questions that arise in geometry. A key theme will be confomal maps, or transformations of the plane which preserve angles.


Prerequisites
High school geometry. Calculus may be helpful, though not necessary.

M54: Classical Ciphers and the Enigma Machine
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Aaron Segal

Is there such a thing as an unbreakable cipher? How did the ancients protect secret messages? How did the British crack the German Enigma cipher in WWII? What does

AUJOM UWTOT GZWCO AKLUG PTELK HLGWA ZTYYG BKWZU DKMHP AUPHW PR

mean? Find out the answers to these questions and more!

M103: A Reckless Foray into Analysis
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Darren Gooden

Analysis: the study of functions and the spaces on which they act.

This course: an exciting combination of the fundamentals of analysis with a lot of cool stuff.


Prerequisites
good math background, familiarity with calculus would help.

M87: How This Website Works
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Jordan Moldow

Ever wonder what was actually going on when Splash registration opened? Find out how the Splash website (or any website) works behind the scenes.

We’ll cover, very briefly, the basics of all the major concepts of web design, including HTML, CSS, databases, client-side and server-side scripting, servers, version controlling, and caching. All examples will be taken from the Splash website. And if time allows, we’ll take a look at some of the administrative portions of the website - the pages that help the Splash directors administer the program.

This class will be an overview of many different concepts of web design, and how they interact. It will not be an in-depth look at any one concept, though links to resources for additional learning will be provided.


Prerequisites
No computer experience is required. In fact, if you have a lot of computer experience, you’ll probably be bored. But if you don't already know most of the terms listed in the description, then you're encouraged to register for this class!

M67: Things that do not make sense (Mathematical Paradoxes)
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Lauren Berk

"I am telling a lie"
Was I lying?

If you answered either "yes" or "no" think again - and come to this class to see more quandaries like these! We will:

- Draw pictures that defy geometry
- Solve equations that convince us that 1=2
- Discuss game shows that have us making seemingly stupid choices
- Add up whole numbers to get a fraction
- Realize the hare can never catch the tortoise
- Conclude that even when people test positive for a disease, they are far more likely *not* to have the disease than to have it!

Of course, there is no such thing as a paradox, right? There have to be reasonable explanations to all these things... come and decide for yourself!


Prerequisites
Different paradoxes require different types of knowledge, including basic algebra, geometry, and probability theory. But if you're missing some of these and are okay with not understanding one or two of the examples, that should be fine

M70: Mathematical Modeling of Romantic Relationships Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Soonwook Hong

We will look at different attempts by mathematicians to model interpersonal relationships of an intimate nature. Then we'll use our imaginations to try and devise models of our own! You probably won't learn anything that will be useful for your love life, but what you can learn are some fun and quirky applications of math that you probably won't see in your high school classes.

If the thought of modeling Romeo and Juliet's relationship with differential equations appeals to you, or you think the idea of solving a matchmaking problem with an iterative algorithm is awesome, then take this class!

N.B. If you use the conclusions derived from these models in your own personal relationships, do so at your own peril.


Prerequisites
This class will have some differential equations and combinatorics in it. Calculus will probably be helpful. No real relationship experience required!

M113: Game Theory: Using mathematics to understand how people interact. Full!
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Luke de Oliveira

This class will be all fun and games! (If you like math or social science) Game Theory is one of the most exciting fields in mathematics and economics, and it allows us to look at why people do the things they do. We use game theory often in our lives! How do we subtly let people know whether we're good at something or not? When you shoot a penalty kick in soccer, how can you maximize the percentage you make it? If you're playing tic tac toe, or rock paper scissors, how can you maximize the percentage with which you win? We will start with the formal mathematical definition of a game, $$\Gamma = \left\lbrace {T, I, P, H, A, p, u} \right\rbrace$$ (which everyone will understand!!!) and move to cool applications such as the ones already listed, plus more cool ones like how you can outsmart a game show host!


Prerequisites
Students should be comfortable with mathematical arguments (logic mostly). Math at the level of calculus is ideal, but certainly not necessary.


Science

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S111: Malaria: Understanding the Disease and Its Treatment
Difficulty: **

Malaria is incredibly widespread and a killer of adults and children on a massive scale each year. The biology of how people get the disease, why some people get a more severe version of the disease than others, and what countries and organizations are doing to stop malaria will be discussed. Bring questions and but not a fear of mosquitos!


Prerequisites
An understanding of biology.

S116: Cooking with Chemistry Full!
Difficulty: **

Chemistry plays a constant role in our daily lives - you can't bake or cook without it! In this class we'll be learning about the role chemical reactions play in common baking processes. Why do we add baking powder to biscuits? What does yeast do in bread? Students will create delicious baked goods while learning all about the chemistry behind the magic of baking.

S56: Avian Biodiversity and Conservation
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Catherine Sheard

At some point in elementary school, you probably studied dinosaurs.

You were probably told that dinosaurs are extinct.

YOU WERE LIED TO.

There are nearly 10,000 species of dinosaurs alive and well on this earth, but we don't call them dinosaurs anymore. We call them BIRDS.

Come find out about some really cool birds, from high-altitude hummingbirds that crawl on the ground to birds that mimic chainsaws to birds that can disembowel a human in a single slash. Hear a little bit about the challenges that these birds face and learn what YOU can do to prevent the extinction of the dinosaurs!

S50: Cosmology
Difficulty: **
Teachers: benjamin horowitz

Why is the universe expanding? What is cosmological inflation? What creates the structure we see in the universe today? Come to learn all about the history of the universe and some of the still open questions!



Prerequisites
Knowledge of algebra is crucial. Some background physics knowledge would be helpful but isn't required.

S51: Next Generation DNA Sequencing
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Sebastian Caliri

In 2008, the cost of sequencing a single human genome was nearly $10 million dollars. In 2012, obtaining the same results in half the time costs $1,000, a logarithmic gain of efficiency that puts Moore's Law to shame.

In this class we will discuss the technologies that have made this revolution possible, starting in 1977 with Sanger and Gilbert through to the "next generation" Illumina and Ion Torrent sequencers of today. We will then dive in to the uses of these tools, from studying chromatin architecture to cancer and personalized medicine.


Prerequisites
A basic high school biology course should suffice, although chemistry and AP Biology would also be helpful. As long as you know the basics of DNA's chemical structure and genetics (ie, what the terms "haploid", "heterozygous", and "histone packing" refer to), you will be in good shape.

S86: Secrets of the Immune System
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Carrie Cao

You get the chicken pox. You get sick, you get better, and you never get it again. We all know this, but how does your body know what to do when invaded? You are welcome to come take a closer look at just what happens during an immune response and how your body prepares for infection, such as antibody production and regulation of memory cells.


Prerequisites
Some knowledge of molecular biology would be helpful. A slight bit math will be involved, but not required for enjoyment.

S84: The Chemistry of Life
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Daniel Berenson

You've heard all the words in your biology class: amino acids, enzymes, ATP, ribosomes. But have you ever wondered exactly HOW these these molecules participate in life? When you hear that you can burn sugar for energy, what does that actually mean? You may be surprised to learn that some chemical reactions lead to molecules physically twisting around a shaft like a motor, or all the different ways ATP can be used to do work in the cell.


Prerequisites
Some biology and chemistry are recommended.

S99: Reproductive Biology
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Napon Chirathivat

A quick overview of the principles behind reproductive biology, followed by a more in-depth exploration of the unique and interesting molecular fertilization mechanisms of organisms ranging from sea urchins to humans.


Prerequisites
Some biology is useful but not necessary

S123: Dimensional Analysis Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Pearson Miller

Physics is a discipline that often requires a lot of mathematical sophistication to derive the important results. However, with a good enough understanding of a given physical system, a lot of the hard can be avoided. We'll start out the course by using dimensional analysis to solve a couple of classic physics problems. Then we'll discuss the theoretical significance of the Buckingham Pi theorem. Finally, if time permits, we'll discuss the role of dimensionless numbers in the field of fluid dynamics.

S107: Viruses and Prions
Difficulty: *

From mad cow disease to H1N1, some of mankind's most mysterious and dangerous diseases are caused by viruses and prions. We'll be talking about the biology behind these powerful pathogens; how they work and what they do to make us sick.

S106: Buuuuuugs: An Introduction to Entomology
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Natalie Wolff

Entomology is the scientific study of insects. If you can't tell a bat from a bee, this is the class for you. We'll examine how insects are categorized, what traits can be used to tell them apart, and then try to sort insect specimens into groups in order to create a taxonomic key.

S122: How the Kidney Works
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Linda Zhou

An tour of kidney physiology! You may have learned about nephrons, but how exactly does this one little cell regulate all of the fluids and salts going in and out of our body and basically keep us functioning? A little bit physics, anatomy, and physiology goes a long way!


Prerequisites
Basic biology is recommended but not necessary

S78: Atrial Fibrillation and the Evolution of the Cox Maze Procedure
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Sophia Roberts

Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in the U.S. as well as a significant risk factor for stroke. The Cox maze procedure corrects atrial fibrillation with a set of lesions that direct interfering electrical signals through a “maze” in the atria, thereby returning the heart to normal sinus rhythm.

In this class we will cover the causes of atrial fibrillation and the development of the Cox maze procedure, from its conception as a crude "cut-and-sew" procedure to its transformation into an operation utilizing advanced ablative technologies, as well as robotic surgical assistance. We will explore the debate over the efficacy of these various technologies and discuss how the procedure continues to evolve today.


Prerequisites
A high school biology course would be useful, but not necessary. An interest in medicine is really all you'll need.

S92: On the Edge of Collapse: Shock and Trauma
Difficulty: **
Teachers: John Urwin

When the human body is exposed to extreme physical force, it must cope as best as it can to maintain adequate blood flow to all of its tissues. When the body fails to maintain this equilibrium, or homeostasis, it enters into shock. This collapse of the circulatory system, and whether or not it can be reversed, is at the center of whether a trauma victim will live or die. This lecture will go into the nature of shock, its stages, and the techniques emergency medical personnel use to combat it.


Prerequisites
Some biology is recommended

S121: The Science of Ice Cream Full!
Difficulty: *

We will be exploring the science behind making ice cream and learning about the different ways it is made before trying out some experiments of our own. Due to time constraints we will be using liquid nitrogen to freeze the ice cream. Come hungry!

S52: Building a Habitable Planet
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Joseph O'Rourke

We know one planet friendly to intelligent life: Earth. In the next few years, scientists will discover a plethora of Earth-sized planets with Earth-like orbits around Sun-like stars. Should we expect these planets to be like Earth in terms of hosting intelligent life, or is habitability more difficult to attain? No background in planet hunting is assumed and math will be scarce. Fun will be had.

S95: Genetic Evidence of Human Evolution
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Elisa Visher

You probably know that humans' closest relative is the chimpanzee, but that spit happened around 6 million years ago. So what happened to hominids during the time between their ape origens to today? New tools of genetic analysis have been able to shed light on human origens and evolution. This class with cover topics such as Mitochondrial Eve and Neanderthal Admixture, as well as genetic evidence for times of speciation.


Prerequisites
The basics of the genetics associated with the lecture will be explained, but students should have some familiarity with simple genetic concepts like what a gene is and the structure of DNA.

S96: From Mind to Molecules: Uncovering Mechanisms of Memory
Difficulty: ***

An in-depth look into the "miracle" of human memory. How does our brain store the memories we can recall decades later? How do different chemicals in the brain affect the way we learn and remember? How do these pathways go wrong in diseases like Alzheimer's Disease and dementia?


Prerequisites
A course in biology or psychology is recommended. AP Biology is preferred.

S97: Astronomy: To Infinity and Beyond
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Sofia John

This class provides an overview of the formation of stars and planets. Students will also learn about constellations, scales of the universe, and the position of humankind in the grand scheme of the universe.

S112: Cellular Secret Agents: Non-coding RNA functions and applications
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Spencer Katz

The central dogma of molecular biology was always believed to be DNA is transcribed to RNA, which is then transcribed to protein. But in recent years the discovery of micro RNAs and other non-coding RNAs have shown that there is an entire field of genetic regulatory machinery provided by RNA. This class will cover the different types of non-coding RNA, their native functions in cells, and the ways that researchers can hijack these functions in experimental design.


Prerequisites
It would be useful to have a basic knowledge of cell biology, including the parts of the cell and the function of DNA, but these things will be reviewed briefly.


Miscellaneous

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X69: Law & Order Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Amelia Clark

We'll cover all of the courtroom basics, a brief introduction to the rules of evidence and criminal procedure, talk about some interesting legal cases and laws, and students will have time to participate in an informal mock trial.

X119: Pop Culture Around The World
Difficulty: *

Are you curious about what people in other places fond cool? In this class we'll survey Music, movies, and art from at least one country on every continent. You might even learn some dance moves!

X83: The Art of War: Strategy and Wisdom Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Aaron Segal

The Art of War is an ancient book of strategy by the Chinese philosopher-general Sun Tzu. Written 2,500 years ago, it is still carried in the pockets of successful generals, executives, and politicians today. Learn how to command troops, foretell victory, avoid defeat, and become a successful general. Then test your knowledge in a war game!

X65: Neuro-Linguistic Programming, or “Mind Control in One Easy Lesson”
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Lauren Berk

“Mind Control” may sound like science fiction, but NLP makes it possible! We will focus on controlling our *own* minds, but will touch on some ways to control others. We will cover:

- How to reprogram your negative memories so that they affect you less, and how to highlight your best memories, by playing your memories backwards and forwards, giving them Mickey Mouse ears, and turning them upside down!
- How to cure phobias and break habits instantly
- How to anchor emotions to different parts of your body, so you can concentrate or relax by simply grabbing your wrist
- How to change your perception of time to improve memory or perspective

- How to read people’s minds by watching how their eyes move
- How to make someone you are walking besides walk faster


Sound too good to be true? Well, there *is* a reason it’s called a “pseudo-science”, but it has worked for untold thousands of people - come see it it will work for you!

X120: Public Speaking: The Oldest Western Art
Difficulty: **
Teachers: Alec Joyner

We will use a series of great oratorical performances from Western history to examine the fundamentals of public speaking, then try to apply what we've learned ourselves. If you've always wanted to be like Socrates, Cicero, Abraham Lincoln, or Martin Luther King, this is the class for you!

X110: The Evolution of Videogames as an Art Form Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Andrew Crouch

Did you know that the United States National Endowment of the Arts declared videogames an art form in May 2011? And that the Smithsonian American Art Museum is opening an exhibit on March 16, 2012 called "The Art of Video Games"? Surprised? Why, or why not? We will discuss why the NEA did this (according to us), as well as whether we agree. The quality of the discussion depends on you!


Prerequisites
A propensity to talk before thinking. A lack of fear of speaking in public.

X88: How to run a Splash!
Difficulty: *

Splash doesn't just run itself! Directors put in a lot of hard work to make this program run. Want to learn how to run a Splash when you go to college, or just want to hear what goes on behind the scenes? Come find out!

Presented by two program directors from the MIT Educational Studies Program (ESP), a student group that runs Splash (and other educational programs) at MIT.


Prerequisites
A curiosity for how Splash is run.

X117: How to Win Every Argument... Full!
Difficulty: **
Teachers: David Crosson

Learn the fundamentals of Argumentation & Persuasion. We'll discuss Syllogistic Reasoning, common debate fallacies, and cool analogies & examples to use!!!

X93: Native American Powwows
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Elizabeth Rule

What exactly is a Native American powwow? In this class you will learn some of the main features of a powwow and why they are important cultural gatherings and social events in the United States today. Sign up for this class if you are interested in knowing more about Native American traditions, listening to powwow music, and learning a few dance steps!

X101: Go Green! Sustainability in High School and Beyond
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Erica Rothman

What is sustainability, and why should I care? This class will teach you the basics of resource conservation, waste reduction, and sustainable behaviors for an educational setting. The tips you take from this class will help you be sustainable in school and live sustainably for the rest of your life!

X53: Finding Flow Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Tom James

This class will study the psychological phenomenon of flow, which could be thought of as answering the question, what puts us "in the zone?"

Positive psychologist Mihaly Csíkszentmihályi has identified ten factors that accompany an experience of flow, including:

* Clear, attainable, challenging goals
* A high degree of concentration on a limited field of attention
* A loss of the feeling of self-consciousness, the merging of action and awareness.
* Distorted sense of time, one's subjective experience of time is altered.
* Direct and immediate feedback
* Balance between ability level and challenge
* A sense of personal control over the situation or activity
* The activity is intrinsically rewarding, so there is an effortlessness of action
* A lack of awareness of bodily needs
* Absorption into the activity, narrowing of the focus of awareness down to the activity itself

This class will be a personal exploration of flow in our own lives, and how we can bring even more of it into our personal experience.


Prerequisites
None.

X75: Top Secret: Medical Experiments of the 20th Century Full!
Difficulty: *

Join us as we uncover the secrets of unethical medical experimentation across the globe. We reveal the details of little-known government operations such as the Guatemala syphilis experiments and the Willowbrook hepatitis studies.

X94: Goal Setting & Positive Thinking Full!
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Jennifer Wester

Understanding the impact of attitude and dreaming on your pursuits in life; Making an impact through positive actions

X98: Design Happiness into your Community
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Sunnie Tolle

What we think drives our happiness often doesn’t. So what does? And how can knowing this help us create stronger bonds in our community and neighborhood? Understanding happiness is crucial to building successful relationships and community organizations. Yet recent research suggests that our definition of happiness is often confused and misguided. In this class, we explore new data on happiness, focusing on: re-thinking happiness (a happy you); designing happiness (a happy community); spreading happiness (a happy city). Students will work together to prototype solutions/projects which, if implemented, will affect positive change within the students' community. At the end of the class every student will have a set of tools to develop their own ideas and make a difference in their community.


Prerequisites
none

X118: Math and Writing
Difficulty: ***
Teachers: Miles Calabresi

What do math and writing have to do with each other? If the mathematical "and" is "plus," then what is "but" in math-speak?

Come see the answers to these question, the relationship between how you write sentences and how you solve equations, and more!


Prerequisites
Elementary algebra

X68: Ultimate Frisbee: Strategy
Difficulty: *
Teachers: Stephanie Ger

Ultimate Frisbee transcends a simple pickup game played at picnics and after school. Instead, at the competitive level, there are many rules that govern the game, even though there are no referees, and strategy involved in each play. This class will be a brief introduction to competitive ultimate, the rules that govern the sport and different offensive and defensive plays.


Prerequisites
An interest in learning about ultimate frisbee!